Factors affecting solubility

Solubility may increase or decrease with temperature; the magnitude of this temperature dependence varies widely among compounds. When the partial pressure of gas increases, the chance of its solubility is also increased. Although the solubility of a solid generally increases with increasing temperature, there is no simple relationship between the structure of a substance and the temperature dependence of its solubility.

Reading and following the safety precautions of all materials used in a project is the sole responsibility of each individual. Example 4 Butters is trying to increase the solubility of a solid in some water.

13: Factors Affecting Solubility

For the technique to work properly, the compound of interest must be more soluble at high temperature than at low temperature, so that lowering the temperature causes it to crystallize out of solution. When cooling, the sugar will crash out of the solution and form solid crystals, many of which will likely be on the wooden skewer.

In the same way, compounds with low solubility will dissolve over extended time geological timeresulting in significant effects such as extensive cave systems or Karstic land surfaces.

Hence, the solvent is able to dislodge more particles from the surface of the solute. The net ionic equation for the resulting chemical equilibrium is the following: Consequently, the equilibrium concentration of the gas particles in gaseous phase increases, resulting in lowered solubility.

Solubility and Solubilzation in Aqueous Media, 1st Edition. One day, he finds a barrel containing a saturated solution of silver chloride.

Factors Affecting Solubility

Contributors Skills to Develop To understand how Temperature, Pressure, and the presence of other solutes affect the solubility of solutes in solvents. Implementation of any Science Project Idea should be undertaken only in appropriate settings and with appropriate parental or other supervision.

However, those effects are finitely determined only for solids and gases. A similar effect is seen in the rising temperatures of bodies of water such as the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in North America, where global warming has been implicated as the cause.

When the concentration of dissolved gas molecules has increased so that the rate at which gas molecules escape into the gas phase is the same as the rate at which they dissolve, a dynamic equilibrium has been established, as depicted here. These are often the source of high quality economic mineral deposits and precious or semi-precious gems.

The variation of solubility with temperature has been measured for a wide range of compounds, and the results are published in many standard reference books.

He added tea leaves and sugar in the water then he observed that sugar dissolved in the water but the tea leaves were still there in the water. First, note that the process of dissolving gas in liquid is usually exothermic. Anyone who routinely boils water in a teapot or electric kettle knows that a white or gray deposit builds up on the inside and must eventually be removed.

A saturated solution is a solution where a given amount of solute is completely soluble in a solvent at a given temperature. Thus, increasing the temperature increases the solubilities of substances.

Consequently, the equilibrium concentration of the gas particles in gaseous phase would decrease, resulting in greater solubility. The temperature, the polarity of the solutes and solvent, the pressure, and the molecular size affect solubility. All of these factors play roles in determining which solutes dissolve in which solvents.

Temperature affects solubility by changing the properties of the solvent. As a general rule, as. Solubility is defined as the upper limit of solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at equilibrium.

In such an equilibrium, Le Chatelier's principle can be used to explain most of the main factors that affect solubility. Le Ch รข telier's principle dictates that the effect of a stress upon a system in chemical equilibrium can be predicted in that the system tends to shift in.

Solubility And Factors Affecting Solubility A solution is a homogeneous mixture of one or more solutes in a solvent. Sugar cubes added to a cup of tea or coffee is a common example for a solution.

Concept: Factors affecting solubility Concept Overview: When considering the solubility of gases in liquids, the pressure of the gas in contact with the liquid is important information.

The solubility of most substances depends strongly on the temperature and, in the case of gases, on the pressure.


The solubility of most solid or liquid solutes increases with increasing temperature. When you add a solute to a solvent, the kinetic energy of the solvent molecules overcomes the attractive forces among solute particles. The solute particles leave the surface of the solid and move into the dissolved (aqueous) phase.

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Factors affecting solubility
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Factors Affecting Solubility - Chemistry LibreTexts